Paulus W, Classen J, Cohen LG, Large CH, Di Lazzaro V, Nitsche M, Pascual-Leone A, Rosenow F, Rothwell JC, Ziemann U. (2008) State of the Art: Pharmacologic Effects on Cortical Excitability Measures Tested by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Brain Stimulation (2008) 1, 151–63

The combination of brain stimulation techniques like transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with CNS active drugs in humans now offers a unique opportunity to explore the physiologic effects of these substances in vivo in the human brain. Motor threshold, motor evoked potential size, motor evoked potential intensity curves, cortical silent period, short-interval intracortical inhibition, intracortical facilitation, short-interval intracortical facilitation, long-interval intracortical inhibition and short latency afferent inhibition represent the repertoire for investigating drug effects on motor cortical excitability by TMS. Here we present an updated overview on the pharmacophysiologic mechanisms with special emphasis on methodologic pitfalls and possible future developments or requirements.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Acute Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: Clinical Response in an Open-Label Extension Trial. J Clin Psychiatry 69:3, March 2008

This report describes the results of an open-label extension study of active trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in medication-resistant patients with major depressive disorder who did not benefit from an initial course of therapy in a previously reported 6-week, randomized controlled study of active versus sham TMS.

The Oxford Handbook Of Transcranial Magnetic Simulation Edited by Eric Wassermann, Charles Epstein, and Ulf Ziemann -Oxford University Press 2008 (ISBN-13: 978-0198568926)

Since becoming commercially available in 1985, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as an important tool in several areas of neuroscience. Originally envisioned as a way to measure the responsiveness and conduction speed of neurons and synapses in the brain and spinal cord, TMS has also become an important tool for changing the activity of brain neurons and the functions they subserve and an important adjunct to brain imaging and mapping techniques. Along with transcranial electrical stimulation techniques, TMS has diffused far beyond the borders of clinical neurophysiology and into cognitive, perceptual, behavioural, and therapeutic investigation and attracted a highly diverse group of users and would-be users. The Oxford Handbook of Transcranial Stimulation provides an authoritative review of the scientific and technical background required to understand transcranial stimulation techniques and a wide-ranging survey of their burgeoning application in neurophysiology, perception, cognition, emotion, and clinical practice.